Creation of the European Communities

What are the European Communities and how have they been created? 

We’ve to look back to 1950 after the World War II and take into account that the general situation lived was an unstable one with a devastated Europe. For the improvement of this situation we begin with a first step proposed by Robert Schuman in 1950 saying that:  

“Europe will not be made all at once or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity”

1. This idea is reflected in the ECSC( European Community of steel and coal) Treaty in Paris in 1951 through the coal and steel treaty. This video reflects this important beginning for what in some decades will one of the most important International Organizations, The European Union

What we have to understand that this decision has been made to achieve the idea of the improvement and cooperation between countries, how in this case? The French an German production of steel and coal will be subject to a common high authority in a Treaty regarding open to other countries. Their members were Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxemburg and The Netherlands.

2. The second step of coordination is seen in 1957, Treaty of Rome with the same members as in 1951. In this case, de European Economic Community has created as well as The Euratom Treaty regarding atomic energy. Basically, their objectives were to establish the customs union, the suspension of tariff barriers, freedom of movement and coordination of certain economic policies. 

Imagen relacionada

So far we have witnessed the creation of three institutions ECSC, EEC and Euratom  but having in mind that they are all independent bodies and each with its respective administrative organs.

 If you are interested in the functioning of these organs we invite you to go to the other section of this blog called functioning to study it more deeply.

The merger of these three institutions takes place in Brussels in 1965. At that moment the States share sovereignty and common values are instituted: respect, human dignity, freedom, democracy, etc.

3.Until that time the agreements had been adopted by unanimity but due to some problems with France, the agreements came to be voted by qualified majority. This was agreed in the Luxembourg Compromise in 1966. This meaning that before every single member had to approve the proposal to be applied but with this new method this will change more into an absolute majority. 

4.Single European Act in 1986 aimed at removing obstacles to the free movement of goods across the borders of the European Union and thus creating the single market. Is the “Europe of the merchants” where we found the following principles:

–      Common foreign policy 

–      Domestic market

–      Reinforcement of the Parliament and the Court of Justice 

5.The last we face to is the Treaty of the European Union, Maastricht in 1992. It’s intended to give a new spirit and ambition and the European political vocation is embodied in it. This treaty responds to the following general objectives and the “Europe of merchants” turns into “Europe of the citizens” 

–      Abolition of internal borders 

–      Free movement of European citizens 

–      Creation of the Committee of Regions, Europol, European Central Bank 

We could say that it is the stone on which the European Union is based, having three fundamental pillars:

  • Economic and monetary union
  • The common foreign and security policy
  • Cooperation in justice and home affairs

The Union is not a State intended to replace existing member States, but is more than just an Internal Organization. Its member States have established common institutions over which they delegate part of their sovereignty, so that decisions on certain matters of common interest can be taken democratically at the European level.